South Mountain is a north-south extension of the famous Blue Ridge into Maryland. It is a sharp ridge made of resistant metamorphic rocks, including gneisses, schists and quartzites. The slopes on either side are unusually steep and so passing from east to west over the mountain is best done through “gaps” made by eroding antecedent river systems. Water gaps are deepest and have streams currently flowing through them. (One is made by the Potomac River.) A wind gap was also made by river erosion, but the water was long ago snatched away by stream piracy. Crampton’s Gap (39° 24′ 36″ N, 77° 38′ 24″ W) is a wind gap less than 300 meters wide.
for article: Wooster Geologists